BlackRock has about $1 trillion of defined contribution assets while Fidelity and Vanguard both administer multiple trillions, so the New York giant is dangling defined benefits as a way to win the defined contributions game
Brooke’s Note: The 401(k) system was launched with a wing and a prayer in 1978 as a free-enterprise experimental answer to the more socialistic systems that exist in Europe and the rest of the world. But the venture capital community turned up their noses and big companies — with kickbacks galore — mostly exploited its ripeness for abuse. Now finally as the DC system surpasses $10 trillion, DOL pushes back against abuse and states mandate that larger firm sponsor 401(k) plans, healthy competition abounds. They’re not just competing for the assets. It’s the way the 401(k) system aggregates young, low-balance investors that can be rolled over down the road. BlackRock is a late mover relative to Vanguard and Fidelity. But when you are BlackRock, you start to try harder — investing more and taking bigger risks, like adding back in guaranteed income forgone when defined contributions replaced defined benefits.
BlackRock is finally releasing its newfangled 401(k) product default option — the progeny of a grander master plan — that it may hope makes inroads on Vanguard and Fidelity, which dominate the $10.4-trillion defined contribution (DC) retirement market.
Starting next year, its insurance-laced target date fund, LifePath Paycheck, will become the default option for 120,000 U.S. employees at five large US firms, as well as the Tennessee Valley Authority Retirement System, as they move to defined contribution plans.
“We’re sitting between the end-individual and insurance companies, using our aggregation power to face off against the insurance company,” BlackRock chief client officer Mark McCombe told the Wall Street Journal.
Essentially the product takes a standard 10 basis-point BlackRock LifePath target date fund (TDF) and adds an option to buy defined benefits via annuities — on the cheap — as an employee nears their 60th birthday.
It’s a nice idea but BlackRock doesn’t really have much “aggregation power” in insurance, according to David Lau, founder and chief executive officer of Louisville, Ky., insurance marketplace vendor DPL Financial Partners.
“There isn’t any meat to this claim,” he says.
“Other plan providers, like Principal, which is also an insurance carrier, have both the scale and annuity manufacturing capabilities to be more price competitive. Varying expenses are primarily driven by distribution costs of commissions and riders, neither of which come into play here,” he explains.
If BlackRock expects the Paycheck annuities bundle provides a first-mover advantage for its bid to grow TDF and 401(k) marketshare, it’s mistaken, says David Stone, CEO of Louisville, Ky.-based RIA insurance vendor, RetireOne, via email.
“It’s certainly not exclusive to BlackRock, so we’ll likely see other manufacturers jump in,” he explains.
Sold, not bought
This engineering may have a flaw, according to Scott Smith an analyst at Cerulli.
Annuities remain a product that is sold, not bought, because it is a mind blower for many investors.
The idea of handing over $1 million to assure $50,000 a year in lifetime income can be hard to swallow because the use of the $1 million is no longer there, he says.
BlackRock is taking the tack that it boils down to cost and having a superpower sitting alongside the consumer to guarantee income.
The bad news is that the TDF jumps in price 60% from 10 basis points to 16 basis points.
The average fees Vanguard and Fidelity charge for TDFs is far lower. See: After Fidelity and BlackRock target date funds attract bigger inflows, Vanguard promises to move a minor mountain next February to make its TDF prices more competitive
Of 50 BlackRock TDFs listed by Morningstar, the average fee stands at 36-basis-points, while 12 charge nine-basis-points.
BlackRock has traditionally shied away from the 401(k) market, because it’s historically a frail, fragmented, low-margin, thankless place to do business.
The New York City asset manager has $9.5 trillion under management (AUM), but only about $1 trillion is related to 401(k) and other defined contribution (DC) plans.
Yet the market is expected to grow from $10.4-trillion to $15 trillion in the not-too-distant future, which is suddenly drawing more c-suite-level interest in its promise. See: Vestwell raises another $70-million, which it needs as it burns cash to keep up with rapid tripling of its 401(k) recordkeeping startup — driven both by RIAs and Wall Street
The BlackRock pitch to employers boils down to giving them a way to edge employees toward defined benefits inside of their defined contribution plan — without any big repapering of accounts.
Yet investors have reason for caution about the one-product-fits-all solution, Stone says.
“By age 65, a substantial percentage of the participants’ account is sitting in a fixed income annuity with minimal growth potential,” he explains.
“By combining the TDF with an annuity, the client is mostly in bonds and annuities for several decades which may not be optimal,” he adds. See: T. Rowe Price takes on the risk of its target date fund retirees outliving their savings — by jacking up equity exposure even on the glide path
Vanguard has stated it will not compete with BlackRock to sell annuities through its TDFs, according to a spokeswoman for the $7.3 trillion AUM asset manager.
She cites a November 2020 Vanguard report that labels annuities as “not a best fit for all defaulted investors.”
Plan participants using PayCheck will not pay commissions, sales loads, or distribution fees for the annuities, according to BlackRock.
Overall, LifePath TDFs manage approximately $150 billion, or 43% of the $350 billion in TDF assets under BlackRock’s management.
The inclusion of annuities in TDFs was only recently made practicable as a result of a 2019 rule change.
It reduced the burden of fee reporting, allowed small business to pool plans, and protected employers from legal liability should an insurer fail. See: IRS alleviates suffering of RIAs who use fee-based annuities.
PayCheck automatically moves 401(k) investors partially into annuities, as they age. Charlotte, N.C., insurer, Brighthouse Financial, and New York City insurer, Equitable Holdings provide the annuities. See: The BlackRock-Microsoft ‘reimagining’ of the 401(k) market, arrives looking more like a remix of existing third-party products.
Like most TDFs, PayCheck funds are on glidepaths that reduce risk exposure to equities in line with a clients’ age, steadily shifting investments into safer holdings, like bonds. But from age 59, LifePath automatically offers investors annuities valued at up to 30% of their 401(k) balance.
For all its challenges, BlackRock is right-on in its broad-strokes read of the market, says Will Trout, director of wealth management at Pleasanton, Calif., consultancy Javelin Strategy & Research, via email.
“Positioning these funds as ‘defined benefit’ is in tune with the zeitgeist,” he says. “BlackRock appears determined to strike while the iron is hot.
“Annuities were not on the radar of most advisors until recently, least of all in the 401(k) space, where regulation and reputation made them an uncomfortable fit. Demand for annuity-driven TDFs was just not there,” says Trout.
Factors driving the changing mood include the present low-interest-rate environment, fears over the ongoing bull market, and a likely retirement savings shortfall of $3.83 trillion for Americans…